Static frequency converter.
Frequency converters or 50Hz to 60Hz converters are pretty popular in industrial environments. That’s because they can change the supplied frequency of voltage and protect expensive industrial equipment. Some applications also need 400Hz or 60Hz to 50Hz converters. While keeping that in mind, let’s explore more on static frequency converter 50Hz to 60Hz in particular. The solid-state unit uses Pulse with modulation (PWM) technique to generate the desired frequency. On this page, we will see working, advantages, and types of hertz converters. We hope this will help you decide to select the right style and capacity.
What is a frequency converter?
A frequency converter, sometimes known as a power frequency changer, is a device that transforms 50hz to 60 Hz or 50Hz to 400 Hz output power. There are several types of power frequency converters, including rotary converters and solid state frequency converters. Rotary type system runs a motor using electrical energy. The incoming alternating current (AC) is converted to direct current using solid-state frequency converters (DC).
You will come across the need to modulate the frequency of current for industrial applications. Frequency converters are, described, Hertz converters. The frequency converter transforms a fixed-frequency, fixed-voltage sine-wave power (line power) into a variable-frequency, the variable-voltage output used to adjust induction motor speed. Frequency converter 50Hz to 60Hz is the most commonly used unit of all configurations.
Why do you need a frequency converter?
When working on applications with power load, you will need to use a power frequency converter. For example, many machines imported to Asian or Middle Eastern countries from the USA run on 60Hz. But, the utility power supply in most of Asia and the Middle East is 50Hz. Hence, to start those machines, one needs a 50Hz to 60Hz converter.
Frequency converter 50Hz to 60Hz is commonly used in UAE, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, & Kuwait. Defense, Aviation, Marine, and Manufacturing industries need Hertz converters.
Other than above, there are several reasons which justify the use of a frequency converter. Some of the most prevalent reason behind investing in it are as follow.
For energy saving.
However, there are situations where the lights and resistance heaters don’t be mindful of the incoming power frequency. If you are using a resistive load, you will not necessarily have to go with frequency conversion. However, it will still be possible for you to save money. In industrial applications, the fundamental function of a static frequency converter is to save energy. Energy savings can be significant when a pump’s speed is controlled rather than flow through throttling valves.
In addition to conserving energy, the impeller, bearing, and seal life is also substantially enhanced. For example, a 20% drop in speed can result in a 50% reduction in energy use. The next sections discuss how to reduce speed and save energy as a result.
For motor & pump control.
Frequency converters, which come in various configurations, are the most efficient way to adapt pump and fan flow rates to system needs. It transforms conventional plant power in 220V and 50Hz to customizable voltage and frequency to power an AC motor. The frequency determines the motor speed supplied to an AC motor. For some motors, you might need a 60Hz to 50Hz converter.
AC motors are typically identical standard motors that may be connected to an AC power line. Even if the inverter fails, the function may be maintained by integrating bypass starters. Frequency converters also provide the added benefit of extending the life of bearings and pump seals. The pump is not subjected to any greater pressures than necessary since just the pressure required to meet system requirements is maintained in the pump. As a result, the components have a longer lifespan. The same benefits apply to fans controlled by solid state frequency converters, although to a lesser extent. Also, we can use stabilizers and regulators.
Other benefits of frequency converters.
Frequency converters can give other benefits in addition to energy savings and greater process control:
- We can use a static converter to manage process temperature, pressure, or flow without a separate controller. The frequency converter is interfaced with driving equipment using appropriate sensors and electronics.
- Lower running speeds result in longer bearing and motor life, which reduces maintenance expenses.
- The maintenance of throttling valves and dampers and all associated controls are eliminated when these devices are removed.
- It is no longer required to use a soft starter for the motor.
- In a liquid system, a controlled ramp-up speed helps prevent water hammer issues.
- A frequency converter’s ability to limit torque to a user-defined level helps safeguard driven equipment that can’t handle too much torque.
If these benefits are appealing, you may consider getting a frequency converter for the industrial applications that you are currently working on.
Many specifiers request comprehensive information from manufacturers to achieve maximum efficiency and dependability. They next conduct a thorough investigation to decide which system would provide the highest return on investment. It might include efficiency, needed maintenance, diagnostic capabilities, and basic operating characteristics of the frequency converter.
What are the types of frequency converters?
There are two main types of frequency converters available for you to use. They include static frequency converters and rotary frequency converters. Let’s deep dive and explore what these differences are.
Static frequency converter.
Static frequency converters are power converters that convert incoming AC power to DC power (rectifier stage) and then to the appropriate AC frequency and voltage. Where noise, compactness, accuracy, or flexibility are essential, static frequency converters are excellent. These units are naturally silent, making them perfect for use in offices and laboratories. Noise levels are typically less than or equal to 65 decibels (dB). Single-phase to three phases and three phases to single-phase is the most common phase conversions.
Static frequency converters are not particularly successful at beginning motor loads because of the regular motor starting surge current necessary to start motors. To begin to run, motor loads require a hefty kick (6 to 10 times full load amps). This motor starting spike, also known as “locked rotor,” current, is very temporary, lasting only a few milliseconds at its peak before decreasing to normal operating current in about a second. On the other hand, a static frequency converter doesn’t “know” that this big spike will only last milliseconds, so it shuts down to protect itself. The overload capacity of the converter must be matched to the motor starting current. Thus, it resulting in a substantial oversizing of the converter.
Airports require a frequency converter 50hz to 400Hz as a ground power unit (GOU). The advantage is that the same unit can use a 60Hz to 50Hz or 50Hz to 60Hz converter with setting change. Temperature and humidity are additional factors that affect static converters. They are, in essence, air-conditioned and are not tolerant of harsh conditions, such as salt fog. They typically last for ten years of uninterrupted service.
Incoming AC is converted into rotational mechanical power, sent to a generator, which transforms the mechanical power into electric AC output power. Electrical power measurement is in Kilowatts (kW) or Kilovolt-Amperes, whereas rotary power is measured in Horsepower (HP). This procedure necessitates frequency, voltage, and/or phase conversion. The driving motor and generator are connected in a variety of ways in motor-generator systems. The rotary frequency converter is always ideal for motor loads.
Belt coupled converters are the most straightforward and least expensive technique since they employ drive belts and pulleys to transmit energy from the motor to the generator and alter the frequency by changing the pulley ratio. Some clients are concerned about drive belt lifetime, yet drive belts do not fail in practice when correctly designed and fitted.
What are the components of converter?
When you look inside a static frequency converter, you will notice how there are multiple components present inside to cater to the intended functionality. Let’s explore what those components are.
Since changing the frequency of an AC sine wave in AC mode is complex, the frequency converter’s initial task is to convert the wave to DC. As you’ll see a bit later, manipulating DC to make it appear like AC is pretty simple. The rectifier circuit converts AC to DC similarly to that of a battery charger or an arc welder. It employs a diode bridge to confine the AC sine wave’s passage to one direction alone. The outcome is a completely rectified AC waveform that is perceived as a native DC waveform by a DC circuit.
While it does not contribute directly to variable frequency operation, the second component, known as the DC Bus, is not visible in all frequency converters. However, in high-quality, general-purpose frequency converters, they will always be present.
The contemporary frequency converter inverter regulates voltage and frequency using a technology known as “Pulse Width Modulation” (PWM). The inverter creates DC “pulses” that mimic all three phases of the AC sine wave using three sets of high-speed switching transistors. These pulses control not only the wave’s voltage but also its frequency. The name “inverter” or “inversion” means “reversal” and refers to the produced waveforms up and down motion.
How static frequency converter works?
The functionality of a static frequency converter is to convert the current that is given in one frequency to another via an internal mechanism. There are solid-state electronic devices present within the frequency converter, which are in a position to deliver the desired functionality to you at the end of the day.
For example, a rectifier will invert the supply to produce AC with the required frequency. Then there are IGBTs, IGVTs, and thyristors, which will do the voltage conversion as per the users’ expectations. In some of the static frequency converters, you can discover a battery, which can enhance the ride-through of the converter during temporary outages in input current.
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) method.
The inverter produces a sequence of rectangular pulses with a fixed height and adjustable width. Hence, there are three types of pulses in this case. A wide set is in the center, a narrow at the start and end of the positive and negative cycle. The effective voltage of a genuine AC wave is equal to the sum of the pulse area. If sections of the pulses above (or below) the real AC wave were chopped off and used to fill in the vacant spaces beneath the curve, they would nearly exactly match. A frequency converter regulates the voltage supplied to the motor in this way.
The sum of width of pulsed and black intervals determines the frequency of the wave. Depending on the required voltage and frequency, the width and height of pulses & black interval get change. Although the internals that makes this possible is rather complicated, the end effect is stunningly simple! The frequency would still be accurate if the Pulse was continuous, but the voltage would be significantly higher than a pure AC sine wave.
How to size a frequency converter?
Once you start focusing on frequency converters, you will notice many different types of them available. Let’s see the different sizing of frequency converters available as of now and how to classify them.
50 to 60Hz converter.
For industrial applications, a 50 to 60 Hz frequency converter is ideal. These frequency converters can convert the frequency to a range of 50Hz to 60Hz and keep that stable. This will help you to get the desired level of power to proceed with your industrial applications without encountering any struggles.
400Hz frequency converter.
In the 400 Hz frequency converters, you will notice how the output power is amplified up to a frequency of 400 Hz, or 500 cycles per given second. These frequency converters are quite popular in the naval and aircraft industry. For example, you will see how they are present in the latest helicopters out there.
What is frequency?
The rotational characteristics of the hertz converter, or the number of revolutions per minute, will represent the input frequency of electricity. In other words, a motor with a frequency of 60 Hz will spin at 1,800 RPM, whereas an engine with a frequency of 50 Hz will operate at 1,500 RPM. It is where the frequency converter will ensure that the motor is spinning as per the rotational design.
What is the function of a frequency converter?
It is a device that can generate output power with the desired frequency level. For example, it can convert 50Hz to 60Hz or 400Hz that required by your load. In some cases, it can step up or down the input voltages and increase or decrease the frequency simultaneously. Thus, you can generate 220V, 3ph, 60Hz from the input of 400V, 3ph, 50Hz.
What are the applications of frequency converters?
Today Static frequency converters are used in various applications, including electrical energy generation, transmission, distribution, and usage. Their intrinsic capacity to regulate voltage, frequency, and power flow raises the bar on flexibility and energy efficiency. Power electronics have become less expensive and have a higher power rating as a result of technological advancements. They contribute to a more sustainable society by integrating renewable energy sources, reducing energy consumption, and enabling ecologically friendly transportation systems.
What is a 50Hz to 60Hz converter?
It is nothing but the frequency converter designed with 50Hz input and generates an output power of 60Hz frequency. It is often used to run appliances that require 60Hz input in countries like the UAE, India, and Jorden, having a utility supply of 50Hz.
What are the differences between rotary and static frequency converters?
There are distinct differences between the two.
- Rotary units do the conversion by coupling the motor with the generator. In contrast, a static system does frequency conversion with the help of solid-state electronic circuits.
- There is no moving part in static units. Hence, it has a long life & low maintenance than rotary type system.
- For higher kVA capacity, rotary units are more economical than static frequency converters.
- Static hertz converter has the flexibility to desired output frequency between 50 to 400Hz. But, rotary units are designed for a fixed frequency.
- For a given KVA rating, static units are lighter, compact, and easier to transport than a rotary device.
- The rotary unit can withstand overload current for a long time than the static unit.
How does a frequency converter work?
Static frequency conversion system consists of a rectifier and inverter. The rectifier converts input AC voltages into DC and creates DC but. This DC but provides input to the inverter. With the help of IGBT or SCR or MOSFET, power module, and Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique, the unit generates power with desired frequency and voltage.
How to choose a frequency converter?
The first step is to check the frequency & voltage of the available utility power supply. If your machine needs voltage or frequency or both other than available utility power, you need a converter. For example, you imported RV to Dubai from the USA, which needs 220V, 3ph, 60Hz. But, the standard power supply in Dubai, UAE, is 400V, 3ph, 50Hz. Hence, you require a 50Hz to 60Hz frequency converter with 400V input and 220V output.